Contents

In this tutorial, you will learn about constants and variables in R. You will get idea about various types of constants, special constants and built-in constants in R.

## Variables and Constants in R

In almost every programming language, variable is a name given to store the data whose value can be changed according to the need of the programmer or user.

### Variable Names in R

- Variable name can be composed of letters, digits, period (.) and underscore (_) character.
- Variable name starts with letters or period (.) but can not follows by digits.
- Uppercase and lowercase letters are distinct because R is case-sensitive. That is
`A`

and`a`

are different variables in R. - Some words are reserved in R for specific functions. Hence reserved words can not be used as variable names.

#### Valid Variable names in R

`x`

, `X`

, `area`

, `stud.height`

, `Test_1`

, `Test_2`

,`.Test1`

, `.Test2`

are valid variable names in R.

Note that `x`

and `X`

are different in R, as R is case-sensitive.

#### In valid Variable names in R

`_x`

, `area$1`

, `stud@height`

, `_Test1`

, `.1Test`

are invalid variable names.

## Constants in R

### Constants in R

- The simplest type of data object in R is a constant or scalar.
- A constant or scalar is an object with one value.
- In R there are five type of constants namely
`integer`

,`numeric`

,`logical`

,`complex`

and`string`

. - In addition to these, there are four special type of constants, namely,
`NULL`

,`NA`

,`Inf`

and`NaN`

.

### Integer Constants

In R an integer constant can be created by using suffix `L`

after the constant. For example to create the integer constant 12, we use `12L`

.

#### Examples of integer constants

```
x <- 12L
x
```

`[1] 12`

In the above R code, the first line of code assign the integer constant `12`

to the variable `x`

. The symbol `<-`

(combination of two characters `<`

and `-`

) is an assignment operator in R. The second line of code display the value stored in variable `x`

.

The type of storage mode of an object `x`

can be obtained using `typeof()`

function which is `integer`

in this case. And the mode of the object can be determined using `mode()`

function which is `numeric`

in this case.

`typeof(x) # type of storage mode of object x`

`[1] "integer"`

`mode(x)`

`[1] "numeric"`

In R you can also use hexadecimal representation of integer numbers.

Following R code assign `17`

from hexadecimal representation (0x11) to the variable `y`

.

```
y <- 0x11
y
```

`[1] 17`

`typeof(y)`

`[1] "double"`

`mode(y)`

`[1] "numeric"`

We can also assign large integer with exponent format like `1e4L`

(which means $`1 \times 10^4 = 10000`

$).

```
z <- 1e4L
z
```

`[1] 10000`

`typeof(z)`

`[1] "integer"`

### Numeric Constants

Numeric constants consists of an integer part with zero or more digits followed by decimal point (optional) `.`

and a fractional part with zero or more digits (optional) followed by an exponent part consisting of an `E`

or `e`

, an optional sign and an integer constant with zero or more digits. e.g., `2`

, `35`

, `0.45`

, 2e-6`, `

.34`, `

2.456e+3` are valid numeric constants.

#### Examples of numeric constants

Below R code assign a numeric constant `0.45`

to the variable `y`

.

```
y <- 0.45
y
```

`[1] 0.45`

`typeof(y) `

`[1] "double"`

`mode(y)`

`[1] "numeric"`

The double numeric constant `2e-06`

means $`2\times 10^{-6}=0.000002`

$. Below R code assign the double numeric constant `2e-06`

to the variable `z`

.

```
z <- 2e-06
z
```

`[1] 2e-06`

`typeof(z)`

`[1] "double"`

`mode(z)`

`[1] "numeric"`

### Logical Constants

Logical constants are either `TRUE`

or `FALSE`

. Single character can also be used for logical constants i.e., `T`

or `F`

(no quotes).

#### Examples of logical constants

Below R code assign the logical value `T`

(`TRUE`

) to the variable `Result1`

.

```
Result1 <- T
Result1
```

`[1] TRUE`

Below R code assign the logical value `FALSE`

to the variable `Result2`

.

```
Result2 <- FALSE
Result2
```

`[1] FALSE`

### Complex Constants

Complex constants are similar to the numeric constants but they are followed by `i`

. Only pure imaginary numbers are complex constants. e.g., `1i`

, `0i`

, `2.3e-1i`

are valid complex constants.

#### Examples of complex constants

```
# Assign 1i to the variable z1
z1 <- 1i
z1
```

`[1] 0+1i`

`typeof(z1)`

`[1] "complex"`

`mode(z1)`

`[1] "complex"`

```
# Assign 0i to the variable z2
z2 <- 0i
z2
```

`[1] 0+0i`

```
# Assign 0+0.23i to z3
z3 <- 2.3e-1i
z3
```

`[1] 0+0.23i`

#### String Constants

String constants are delimited by a pair of single (`'`

) or double quotes (`"`

) and can contain all other printable characters. e.g., `Male`

, `Strongly Agree`

, `Pre-test`

, `T`

are valid string constants.

#### Examples of String constants

```
# Assign the string "Male" to gender
gender <- "Male"
gender
```

`[1] "Male"`

```
# Assign the string "Strongly Agree" to Text1
Text1 <- 'Strongly Agree'
Text1
```

`[1] "Strongly Agree"`

```
# Assign the string "Pre-test" to Text2
Text2 <- "Pre-test"
Text2
```

`[1] "Pre-test"`

```
# Assign the string "T" to Text3
Text3 <- "T"
Text3
```

`[1] "T"`

## Special Constants/Values

In addition to the above constants, there are four **special constants** in R. They are

`NULL`

,`Inf`

or`-Inf`

,`NaN`

and`NA`

.

### NULL

The constant NULL is used to indicate an empty object in R.

#### Examples of NULL

```
# Assign NULL to the variable A
A <- NULL
```

```
# Display the value of variable A
A
```

`NULL`

`class(A) `

`[1] "NULL"`

`typeof(A)`

`[1] "NULL"`

### Infinity (Inf and -Inf)

If a computation in R results in a number that is too big, R will return positive infinity `Inf`

or negative infinity `-Inf`

depending upon the result. Also a non-zero (positive or negative) number divided by zero results infinity ($\infty$ or $-\infty$). R denotes $-\infty$ by `-Inf`

and $\infty$ by `Inf`

.

#### Examples of Infinity

Below R code returns the value `Inf`

, as the number $2^{2014}$ is too big.

`2 ^ 1024`

`[1] Inf`

Below R code returns the value `-Inf`

, as the number $-2^{2014}$ is too big.

`-2 ^ 1024`

`[1] -Inf`

Below R code returns the result `Inf`

as $\dfrac{1}{0}$ is $\infty$.

`1 / 0`

`[1] Inf`

Below R code returns the result `Inf`

as $-\dfrac{1}{0}$ is $-\infty$.

`-1 / 0`

`[1] -Inf`

Below R code returns the result `0`

as $\dfrac{1}{\infty}$ is $0$.

`1 / Inf`

`[1] 0`

### Not a Number `NaN`

R supports a special value, called `NaN`

, i.e., Not a Number, which indicates that a numerical result is undefined.

#### Examples of `NaN`

`0 / 0`

`[1] NaN`

`Inf - Inf`

`[1] NaN`

`Inf / Inf`

`[1] NaN`

All above R code gives `NaN`

, since the result cannot be defined sensibly.

### Not Available `NA`

R has a particular symbol to indicate the missing value or the value which is not available. R indicate such a value by `NA`

. The result of any arithmetic expression containing `NA`

will produce `NA`

.

#### Examples of `NA`

```
# log is built in function in R
log(NA)
```

`[1] NA`

```
# This is an arithmetic expression
NA + 10
```

`[1] NA`

## Built-in constants in R

R has a small number of built-in constants.

`LETTERS`

The 26 upper-case letters of Roman alphabet are stored in built-in constant `LETTERS`

.

`LETTERS`

```
[1] "A" "B" "C" "D" "E" "F" "G" "H" "I" "J" "K" "L" "M" "N" "O" "P" "Q" "R" "S"
[20] "T" "U" "V" "W" "X" "Y" "Z"
```

`letters`

The 26 lower-case letters of Roman alphabet are stored in built-in constant `letters`

.

`letters`

```
[1] "a" "b" "c" "d" "e" "f" "g" "h" "i" "j" "k" "l" "m" "n" "o" "p" "q" "r" "s"
[20] "t" "u" "v" "w" "x" "y" "z"
```

`month.abb`

The three-letter abbreviations for English month names are stored in built-in constant `month.abb`

.

`month.abb`

` [1] "Jan" "Feb" "Mar" "Apr" "May" "Jun" "Jul" "Aug" "Sep" "Oct" "Nov" "Dec"`

`month.name`

The English month names (full) are stored in built-in constant `month.name`

.

`month.name`

```
[1] "January" "February" "March" "April" "May" "June"
[7] "July" "August" "September" "October" "November" "December"
```

`pi`

The value of $\pi =22/7 = 3.1415927$ is stored as a built-in constant `pi`

.

`pi`

`[1] 3.141593`

## Endnote

In this tutorial you learned about variables and constants in R.

To learn more about data structures in R, please refer to the following tutorials:

- Data Types in R
- Variables and Constants in R
- Data Structures in R
- Vectors in R
- Matrix in R
- List in R
- Factors in R
- Data Frames in R

Hopefully you enjoyed learning this tutorial on variables and constants in R.