Pearson Correlation Coefficient Calculator Examples

Karl Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

Let $(x_i, y_i), i=1,2, \cdots , n$ be $n$ pairs of observations then the Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation between two variables $X$ and $Y$ is denoted by $r_{xy}$ or $r$ and is given by

$r = \dfrac{Cov(X,Y)}{\sqrt{Var(X) Var(Y)}}$

where

$$ \begin{aligned} Cov(x,y) =s_{xy}&=\frac{1}{n-1}\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i -\overline{x})(y_i-\overline{y})\\ &= \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum_{i=1}^n x_iy_i - \frac{(\sum_{i=1}^n x_i)(\sum_{i=1}^n y_i)}{n}\bigg) \end{aligned} $$

  • the sample variance of $x$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} V(x) =s_{x}^2 &=\frac{1}{n-1}\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i -\overline{x})^2\\ &= \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum_{i=1}^n x_i^2 - \frac{(\sum_{i=1}^n x_i)^2}{n}\bigg) \end{aligned} $$

  • the sample variance of $y$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} V(y) =s_{y}^2 &=\frac{1}{n-1}\sum_{i=1}^{n}(y_i -\overline{y})^2\\ &= \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum_{i=1}^n y_i^2 - \frac{(\sum_{i=1}^n y_i)^2}{n}\bigg) \end{aligned} $$

  • the sample mean of $x$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} \overline{x}&=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n x_i \end{aligned} $$

  • the sample mean of $y$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} \overline{y}&=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n y_i \end{aligned} $$

Thus,
$$ \begin{aligned} r_{xy}&=\dfrac{s_{xy}}{s_x\cdot s_y} \end{aligned} $$

The correlation coefficient $r$ can not exceed unity numerically. i.e. $|r|\leq 1 \implies -1 \leq r \leq +1$.

Two independent variables are uncorrelated. But the converse is not necessarily true.

Interpretation

  • If $r = 0$, then there is no correlation between the ranks.
  • If $r > 0$, then there is a positive correlation between the ranks.
    • If $r = 1$, then there is a perfect positive correlation between the ranks.
    • If $0 < r < 1$, then there is a partially positive correlation between the ranks.
  • If $r < 0$, then there is a negative correlation between the ranks.
    • If $r = -1$, then there is a perfect negative correlation between the ranks.
    • If $-1 < r < 0$, then there is a partially negative correlation between the ranks.

Karl Pearson's Correlation Coefficient Calculator

Use this calculator to calculate the Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient.

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient Calculator
  Data 1 : X Data 2 : Y
Enter Data (Separated by comma ,)
Results
Number of Observations (n):
Variance of X:
Variance of Y:
Covariance between X and Y:
Pearson's Coefficient of Correlation: $r$
Coefficient of Determination: $r^2$

How to calculate Pearson's Correlation Coefficient?

Step 1 - Enter the $X$ values separated by commas

Step 2 - Enter the $Y$ values separated by commas

Step 3 - Click calculate button to calculate correlation coefficient

Step 4 - Gives the number of pairs of observations

Step 5 - Gives the sample variance of $X$

Step 6 - Gives the sample variance of $Y$

Step 7 - Gives the sample covariance between $X$ and $Y$

Step 8 - Gives the sample Pearson's correlation coefficient and coefficient of determination.

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient Example 1

A study was conducted to analyze the relationship between advertising expenditure and sales. The following data were recorded:

X Advertising (in \$) 20 24 30 32 35
Y Sales (in \$) 310 340 400 420 490

Compute the correlation coefficient between advertising expenditure and sales.

Solution

Let $x$ denote the advertising expenditure and $y$ denote the sales.

$x$ $y$ $x^2$ $y^2$ $xy$
1 20 310 400 96100 6200
2 24 340 576 115600 8160
3 30 400 900 160000 12000
4 32 420 1024 176400 13440
5 35 490 1225 240100 17150
Total 141 1960 4125 788200 56950

The sample variance of $x$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{x}^2 & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum x^2 - \frac{(\sum x)^2}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{5-1}\bigg(4125-\frac{(141)^2}{5}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{4}\bigg(4125-\frac{19881}{5}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{4}\bigg(4125-3976.2\bigg)\\ &= \frac{148.8}{4}\\ &= 37.2. \end{aligned} $$

The sample variance of $x$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{y}^2 & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum y^2 - \frac{(\sum y)^2}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{5-1}\bigg(788200-\frac{(1960)^2}{5}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{4}\bigg(788200-\frac{3841600}{5}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{4}\bigg(788200-768320\bigg)\\ &= \frac{19880}{4}\\ &= 4970. \end{aligned} $$

The sample covariance between $x$ and $y$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{xy} & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum xy - \frac{(\sum x)(\sum y)}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{5-1}\bigg(56950-\frac{(141)(1960)}{5}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{4}\bigg(56950-\frac{276360}{5}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{4}\bigg(56950-55272\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1678}{4}\\ &= 419.5. \end{aligned} $$

The Karl Pearson's sample correlation coefficient between advertising expenditure and sales is

$$ \begin{aligned} r_{xy} & = \frac{Cov(x,y)}{\sqrt{V(x) V(y)}}\\ &= \frac{s_{xy}}{\sqrt{s_x^2s_y^2}}\\ &=\frac{419.5}{\sqrt{37.2\times 4970}}\\ &=\frac{419.5}{\sqrt{184884}}\\ &=0.9756. \end{aligned} $$

The correlation coefficient between advertising expenditure and sales is $0.9756$. Since the value of correlation coefficient is positive, there is a strong positive relationship between advertising expenditure and sales.

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient Example 2

A study of the amount of rainfall and the quantity of air pollution removed produced the following data:

Daily Rainfall (0.01cm) 4.3 4.5 5.9 5.6 6.1 5.2 3.8 2.1 7.5
Particulate Removed ($\mu g/m^3$) 126 121 116 118 114 118 132 141 108

Calculate correlation coefficient between daily rainfall and particulate removed,

Solution

Let $x$ denote the daily rainfall (0.01 cm) and $y$ denote the particulate removed ($\mu g/m^3$).

Let $x$ denote the daily rainfall and $y$ denote the particulate removed.

$x$ $y$ $x^2$ $y^2$ $xy$
1 4.3 126 18.49 15876 541.8
2 4.5 121 20.25 14641 544.5
3 5.9 116 34.81 13456 684.4
4 5.6 118 31.36 13924 660.8
5 6.1 114 37.21 12996 695.4
6 5.2 118 27.04 13924 613.6
7 3.8 132 14.44 17424 501.6
8 2.1 141 4.41 19881 296.1
9 7.5 108 56.25 11664 810.0
Total 45.0 1094 244.26 133786 5348.2

The sample variance of $x$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{x}^2 & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum x^2 - \frac{(\sum x)^2}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{9-1}\bigg(244.26-\frac{(45)^2}{9}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{8}\bigg(244.26-\frac{2025}{9}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{8}\bigg(244.26-225\bigg)\\ &= \frac{19.26}{8}\\ &= 2.4075. \end{aligned} $$

The sample variance of $x$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{y}^2 & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum y^2 - \frac{(\sum y)^2}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{9-1}\bigg(133786-\frac{(1094)^2}{9}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{8}\bigg(133786-\frac{1196836}{9}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{8}\bigg(133786-132981.7778\bigg)\\ &= \frac{804.2222}{8}\\ &= 100.5278. \end{aligned} $$

The sample covariance between $x$ and $y$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{xy} & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum xy - \frac{(\sum x)(\sum y)}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{9-1}\bigg(5348.2-\frac{(45)(1094)}{9}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{8}\bigg(5348.2-\frac{49230}{9}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{8}\bigg(5348.2-5470\bigg)\\ &= \frac{-121.8}{8}\\ &= -15.225. \end{aligned} $$

The Karl Pearson's sample correlation coefficient between daily rainfall and particulate removed is

$$ \begin{aligned} r_{xy} & = \frac{Cov(x,y)}{\sqrt{V(x) V(y)}}\\ &= \frac{s_{xy}}{\sqrt{s_x^2s_y^2}}\\ &=\frac{-15.225}{\sqrt{2.4075\times 100.5278}}\\ &=\frac{-15.225}{\sqrt{242.0207}}\\ &=-0.9787. \end{aligned} $$

The correlation coefficient between daily rainfall and particulate removed is $-0.9787$. Since the value of correlation coefficient is negative, there is a strong negative relationship between daily rainfall and particulate removed.

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient Example 3

The number of hours 14 students spent studying for a test and their test on that scores are recorded as follows:

Hours spent ($x$) Test Scores ($Y$)
1 41
0 40
1 39
2 48
2 52
3 47
3 49
5 53
6 65
6 70
5 63
7 80
7 87
8 94

Calculate correlation coefficient between hours spent and test scores.

Solution

Let $x$ denote the number of hours hours spent studying and $y$ denote the test scores.

Let $x$ denote the no. of hours spent studying for a test and $y$ denote the test scores.

$x$ $y$ $x^2$ $y^2$ $xy$
1 1 41 1 1681 41
2 0 40 0 1600 0
3 1 39 1 1521 39
4 2 48 4 2304 96
5 2 52 4 2704 104
6 3 47 9 2209 141
7 3 49 9 2401 147
8 5 53 25 2809 265
9 6 65 36 4225 390
10 6 70 36 4900 420
11 5 63 25 3969 315
12 7 80 49 6400 560
13 7 87 49 7569 609
14 8 94 64 8836 752
Total 56 828 312 53128 3879

The sample variance of $x$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{x}^2 & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum x^2 - \frac{(\sum x)^2}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{14-1}\bigg(312-\frac{(56)^2}{14}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{13}\bigg(312-\frac{3136}{14}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{13}\bigg(312-224\bigg)\\ &= \frac{88}{13}\\ &= 6.7692. \end{aligned} $$

The sample variance of $x$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{y}^2 & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum y^2 - \frac{(\sum y)^2}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{14-1}\bigg(53128-\frac{(828)^2}{14}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{13}\bigg(53128-\frac{685584}{14}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{13}\bigg(53128-48970.2857\bigg)\\ &= \frac{4157.7143}{13}\\ &= 319.8242. \end{aligned} $$

The sample covariance between $x$ and $y$ is

$$ \begin{aligned} s_{xy} & = \frac{1}{n-1}\bigg(\sum xy - \frac{(\sum x)(\sum y)}{n}\bigg)\\ & = \frac{1}{14-1}\bigg(3879-\frac{(56)(828)}{14}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{13}\bigg(3879-\frac{46368}{14}\bigg)\\ &= \frac{1}{13}\bigg(3879-3312\bigg)\\ &= \frac{567}{13}\\ &= 43.6154. \end{aligned} $$

The Karl Pearson's sample correlation coefficient between no. of hours spent studying for a test and test scores is

$$ \begin{aligned} r_{xy} & = \frac{Cov(x,y)}{\sqrt{V(x) V(y)}}\\ &= \frac{s_{xy}}{\sqrt{s_x^2s_y^2}}\\ &=\frac{43.6154}{\sqrt{6.7692\times 319.8242}}\\ &=\frac{43.6154}{\sqrt{2164.954}}\\ &=0.9374. \end{aligned} $$

The correlation coefficient between no. of hours spent studying for a test and test scores is $0.9374$. Since the value of correlation coefficient is positive, there is a strong positive relationship between no. of hours spent studying for a test and test scores.

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned about the step by step procedure for calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient. You also learned about how to interpret the correlation coefficient.

To learn more about other correlation and regression, please refer to the following tutorials:

Correlation and Regression

Let me know in the comments if you have any questions on Pearson's correlation coefficient calculator with examples and your thought on this article.
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VRCBuzz co-founder and passionate about making every day the greatest day of life. Raju is nerd at heart with a background in Statistics. Raju looks after overseeing day to day operations as well as focusing on strategic planning and growth of VRCBuzz products and services. Raju has more than 25 years of experience in Teaching fields. He gain energy by helping people to reach their goal and motivate to align to their passion. Raju holds a Ph.D. degree in Statistics. Raju loves to spend his leisure time on reading and implementing AI and machine learning concepts using statistical models.

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