## Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Skewness using R with examples

In this tutorial, you will learn about what is Karl Pearson’s coefficient of skewness and how to calculate Karl Pearson’s coefficient of skewness in R. Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Skewness Skewness is a very important concept in statistics and data science field. Skewness is a measure of symmetry. The meaning of skewness is "lack of …

## How to compute raw and central moments using R with examples

Moments using R In this tutorial, you will learn about how to compute raw and central moments of a data set using R. Before we discuss R functions to compute moments, let us see why we need moments and how moments are defined. Why we need to find moments of a data set? Moments of …

## How to compute quantiles using R with examples

In this tutorial you will learn about the what are quantiles and how to compute quantiles (quartiles, octiles, deciles and percentiles) using R. Quantiles using R Quantiles are the values which divides the entire data into some number of equal parts. The commonly used number of equal parts are 4, 8, 10 and 100. The …

## How to compute five number summary statistics in R with examples

In this tutorial, you will learn about what is five number summary statistics, actual calculation of five number summary and how to find five number summary statistics in R? What is 5-number summary? Five number summary, popularly known as Tukey’s five number summary, is a set of five descriptive statistics to summarize a continuous univariate …

## Built-in Statistical Functions in R

In this tutorial, you will learn about some built-in statistical functions in R and how to use them. Built-in Statistical Functions in R Some of the commonly used built-in statistical function in R are listed below: Function Operation Performed sum(x) Sum of elements of x prod(x) Product of elements of x mean(x) Mean of x …

## Built-in Character Functions in R

Built-in Character Functions in R In earlier tutorials we have seen that how to create character vector in R which contains character strings. To manipulate strings or character vectors, R has many built in functions for characters. Function Description nchar() Get the length of string toupper(x) Convert to Upper case tolower(x) Convert to Lower case …

## Precedence of Operators in R

In this tutorial you will learn about the precedence of operators in R programming language. Precedence of Operators in R Precedence of operators in programming language is the order in which the expression is evaluated. When more than one operators are used in an expression, we need to know the order in which the expression …

## Miscellaneous Operators in R

Apart from the regular arithmetic, logical and relational operators, R has some miscellaneous operators. In this tutorial you will learn about the miscellaneous operators in R with examples. Miscellaneous Operators in R In R, miscellaneous operators are used for special purposes like data frame column selection, generating sequences, model formula, matrix multiplication, etc. Following symbols …

## Logical Operators in R

In this tutorial you will learn about the logical operators in R with examples. Like most of the programming languages, R programming also has logical operators to perform Boolean operations. Logical Operators in R Following symbols are used as logical operators in R programming language: Operator Symbols Logical Operation Example ! Logical negation NOT ! …

## sapply Function in R with Examples

In this tutorial, we will discuss about sapply() function in R with some examples. sapply() function is available in base R package. sapply() function in R The sapply() function takes a vector, list or data frame, an index and a function (built-in or user-defined function) as inputs. The sapply() function is similar to lapply() function, …